Plato

Plato (Ancient Greek: Πλάτων, Plátōn ; Athens or Aegina, c . 427-347 BC) was a Greek philosopher, follower of Socrates, and teacher of Aristotle . C. he founded the Academy of Athens, an institution that would continue for more than nine hundred years and to which Aristotle would go from Stagira to study philosophy around 367 BC. C., sharing about twenty years of friendship and work with his teacher .

He actively participated in the teaching of the Academy. He wrote his works, mostly in the form of dialogue, on the most diverse topics, such as: political philosophy, ethics, psychology, philosophical anthropology, epistemology, epistemology, metaphysics, cosmogony, cosmology, philosophy of language and philosophy of education. Unlike his contemporaries, all of his work is believed to have survived intact .

Plato developed his philosophical doctrines through myths and allegories. In his "theory of forms" or "ideas", he maintained that the sensible world is only a "shadow" of a more real, perfect and immutable one from which the universal concepts that structure reality come from the "Idea of ​​Good". "; and the human soul, which is immortal but is "imprisoned" in the body. According to his "reminiscence theory", ideas are innate in the soul and "remembered" by reason ( anamnesis). Plato is also considered one of the founders of political philosophy, considering that the just city would be governed by "philosopher kings". He also tried to translate his original political theory into a real State, which is why he traveled twice to Syracuse, Sicily, with the intention of putting his project into practice there, but he failed both times and managed to escape painfully and risking his life due to the persecutions he suffered from his opponents. From Plato we also receive the concepts of "platonic love" and "platonic solids".

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