Null hypothesis

In Statistics, the null hypothesis, represented by H_0, is a hypothesis that is presented on certain statistical facts and whose falsity is tried to be proved through an adequate test of hypotheses.

A null hypothesis generally states that there is no relationship between two measured phenomena. For example, in physics: "increasing the potential difference does not affect the current in a conductor". In pharmacological research: "a potential medical treatment has no effect". In market research: "a 5% increase in the price of a particular product will not adversely affect sales of that product".

It is a hypothesis that is intended to be confronted with the facts. It is often a statement about a parameter that is a statistical property of a population. When it is not possible or feasible to observe the entire population, the test is based on the observation of a random sample of the population. Such a parameter is often the mean or standard deviation.

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