Epicurus

Epicurus (Greek: Ἐπίκουρος Epikouros, "ally" or "comrade"), also known as Epicurus of Samos, (341 BC, born Samos, died in Athens 271/270 BC ) He was The highlights of his doctrine are rational hedonism and atomism. Influenced by Democritus, Aristippus, Pyrrho, and possibly Aristotle and the Cynics, he turned against Platonism and established his own school in Athens, known as the "Garden" ( kêpos ; hortus ), where he allowed the entry of women, prostitutes, and slaves. to school.It is said that he wrote more than 300 works on various subjects, but the vast majority of these writings have been lost. Only three letters written by him, the Letter to Herodotus, Pytocles, and Menoeceus ; and two collections of citations, the Capital Maxims and the Vatican Sentences, have survived intact.

Like Aristotle, Epicurus was an empiricist, meaning that he believed that the senses are the only reliable source of knowledge about the world. Repeated sensory experiences can be used to form concepts ( prolepsis ) about the world that can provide the basis for philosophy.He derived much of his physics and cosmology from the atomistic philosopher Democritus. He taught that the universe is infinite and eternal, where all matter is made up of tiny invisible particles called atoms. He spoke out against fate, necessity, and the recurring Greek sense of fatalism. Nature, according to Epicurus, is governed by necessity and chance, understanding this as the absence of causality due to deviation ( parénklisis) produced by the fall of atoms in a vacuum, thus allowing humans to possess free will as the foundation of ethics in a deterministic universe.

For Epicurus, the purpose of philosophy was the pursuit of happiness ( eudaimonia ), characterized by the absence of disturbance in the soul ( ataraxia ) and pain in the body ( apone).). His hedonistic ethic considers seeking pleasure and avoiding pain the purpose of human life; always in a rational way to avoid excesses, as these cause subsequent suffering. The pleasures of the spirit are superior to those of the body, and both must be intelligently satisfied, trying to reach a state of physical and spiritual well-being. He criticized both the debauchery and the renunciation of the pleasures of the flesh, and argued that a middle ground should be sought and that carnal pleasures should be satisfied, as long as they did not bring pain in the future. He stated that religious myths make people's lives bitter, and they should not be feared because they did not care about our vicissitudes.He advocated that people could follow the philosophy better if they lived a simple and self-sufficient life surrounded by friends.

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