Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece (Greek: Ἑλλάς, romanized: Hellás) was a northeastern Mediterranean civilization, existing from the Greek Middle Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC. to the end of classical antiquity (c. 600 AD), comprising a loose collection of culturally and linguistically related city-states and other territories, unified only once, for 13 years, under Alexander's empire Great (336-323 BC). In Western history, the era of classical antiquity was immediately followed by the High Middle Ages and the Byzantine period.

About three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC. C., marking the beginning of the archaic period and the colonization of the Mediterranean basin. This was followed by the era of classical Greece, from the Greco-Persian wars to the 5th and 4th centuries BC. C. The conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon spread the Hellenistic civilization from the western Mediterranean to Central Asia. The Hellenistic period ended with the conquest of the eastern Mediterranean world by the Roman Republic and the annexation of the Roman province of Macedonia to Roman Greece, and later the province of Achaia during the Roman Empire.

The territory of Greece is mountainous, and as a result, ancient Greece consisted of many smaller regions, each with its own dialect, cultural peculiarities, and identity. Regionalism and regional conflicts were prominent features of ancient Greece. Cities tended to be located in valleys between mountains, or on coastal plains, and dominated a certain area around them.

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